When flying an airplane or traveling in one, you might wonder how everything in this massive machine works to get you safely off the ground, into the air, and back on the ground.
Airplanes will rotate clockwise or counterclockwise using spinning engines. The rotation method primarily depends on the age of the aircraft, maintenance expenses, and desired speeds. This may be confusing since airplanes look similar.
The article below will delve into a few airplane operation aspects to help you understand how airplanes rotate, take off, land, and change direction.
How Do Airplanes Rotate?
Rotation encompasses lifting a tricycle-geared airplane’s nose wheel off the runway. It entails pulling back on the plane’s yoke, raising the elevator, and lowering the tail for a smooth takeoff. Getting rotation right is crucial for a smooth takeoff.
If the rotation happens at the incorrect time (such as too soon or too late), it could take longer to get off the ground. This is why it’s so important to get rotation during takeoff and landing absolutely perfect, since it’s all about timing. A plane’s propeller can rotate in the same direction or different directions.
Nowadays, commercial planes will typically have two engines, and you can see these engines spinning if you look very closely. Using a plane with engines rotating in the same direction means lower maintenance costs, and the price of replacement parts will be lower because both propellers have identical gearboxes.
Nonetheless, rotation in the same direction means there is one ‘’critical engine’’ in an emergency. In most commercial airplanes, this is the left-hand engine. Both engines need to work in tandem in order to keep the system running smoothly.
Older aircraft have counter-rotating propellers. This means when one turns counterclockwise the other turns clockwise. The main aspect that caused this arrangement to fall out of favor was the presence of two gearboxes, which translates to higher maintenance costs. However, there is no ‘’critical engine’’ on a plane with counter-rotating propellers, so controlling an aircraft when one engine fails is easy.
How Do Planes Turn Left and Right on the Ground?
The cockpit might look like a car with a standard steering wheel, but controlling a plane on the ground takes work. How you turn an aircraft to the left or right on the ground will first depend on whether you are taking off or landing, steering on a taxiway, or being pushed back.
Planes turn left and right on the ground using tillers and rudder pedals. The steering will be handled using a tiller that steers the nose gear when landing or taking off and steering on a taxiway. If it is a small airplane, the turning of its nose gear is handled by rudder pedals.
When an aircraft is being pushed back, it is turned to the right or left by a towing tug operator.
Check out this YouTube video for more information on how airplanes rotate.
How Does a Plane Rotate on Takeoff?
You might have heard a pilot say ‘’rotate’’ during takeoff and wondered what this is. ‘’Rotate’’ is a verbal cue signifying that the plane has reached its preset rotation speed, often abbreviated as Vr.
A plane rotates on takeoff using the preset rotation speed during taxi. At this speed, the pilot can apply control inputs to lift a plane’s nose off the runway and fly away. This is the safest point at which the plane can leave the ground.
There are three crucial rotation speeds on takeoff, including:
- V1 is the speed beyond which you cannot abort the takeoff.
- Vr is the rotation speed where the pilot applies control inputs to pitch the nose and leave the ground.
- V2 is the takeoff safety speed. This is the point at which the plane can safely climb with one inoperative engine.
The following factors affect the rotation speed on takeoff, and it will typically be different for different-sized aircraft:
- Environmental conditions
- Takeoff weight
- Flap settings
- Airplane brake conditions
How Does an Airplane Change Direction?
Pilots use several control surfaces to change a plane’s direction. These include elevators, rudders, and ailerons. Ailerons lower and raise a plane’s wings to change its roll angle. A clockwise turn of the control wheel raises the right aileron to roll the plane to the right and vice versa.
The rudder uses foot pedals to control a plane’s yaws, a lateral movement on a vertical axis to angle it to the right or left without adjusting the roll angle.
- The rudder enables an aircraft to slip sideways when necessary
- The vertical stabilizer prevents it from sliding sideways, which is crucial in crosswinds
- Elevators control a plane’s descent and climb
Why Do Planes Turn Before Landing?
An aircraft will turn before it lands to line up with the runway. The turning can happen close to the runway if the plane is small, but large commercial airplanes often turn miles away from the runway when the ATC (air traffic control) is vectoring them.
ATC aims to get planes to catch the final approach route at around thirty degrees.
The size of an airport also determines how far the plane will be when it turns. Small airports that are not so busy will often have their aircraft turn fairly close to the runway ends. This is because the pilots will manually navigate the planes for a faster landing.
With a full instrument approach, the aircraft will take longer to land. When flying into a large airport, large commercial airliners will be steered by the ATC. They line up with the runway, so the aircraft’s automation will automatically fly the approach before landing.
From the article above, you now know that airplanes can rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. When the plane is on the ground, it turns to the left or right using rudder pedals, towing tugs, or tillers.
Rotation during takeoff denotes the speeds a plane takes to reach its predetermined speed. When landing, a plane will use elevators, ailerons, and rudders to control it. In conclusion, you now know that planes turn before landing to be in line with the runway!